2.8.1. Jatropha plantation:
The State of Uttarakhand has potential for promoting Jatropha especially in the low elevation areas. For this purpose state government has set up Uttarakhand Biofuel board. The board plans to raise Jatropha plantation on Van Panchayat lands in different forest divisions by selecting intended beneficiaries from Van Panchayat members. The plantation will be raised mainly on wasteland/ degraded Van Panchayat lands. The State Government has planned to cover around 2.0 lakh ha area under Jatropha plantation in two phases through the Board.
2.8.2. Rain Water Harvesting System:
Naula is a surface-water harvesting method typical to the hill areas of Uttaranchal. These are small wells or ponds in which water is collected by making the stonewall across a stream.
2.8.3. Gharats of Uttaranchal: Harnessing Natural Energy
The components of a gharat as follows:
- Flume or chute: A wooden drain kind of thing that routes and rushes the water from the diverted channel to the rotor blades attached to the vertical shaft.
- Grain Feeder: A bag or funnel, which feeds grains to the grinding millstones.
- Bearing: That helps the upper grinding stone to rotate freely.
- Upper Grinding or milling stones: The circular Upper grinding stone of the mill that is directly attached to the shaft and rotates with it.
- Lower Grinding or milling stones: The circular lower grinding mill stone through the middle of which the shaft rod passes to support the upper grinding stone. This lower grinding stone remains stationary.
- Bush: A round wooden or a leather piece fitted to the hole in the lower grinding stone through which the shaft rod passes.
- The vertical shaft: The wooden or iron rod that connects the rotating fan down below with the upper grinding stone.
- Runner with hub: The thick wooden portion to which the fans are fitted and which determines the speed of the rotation of the shaft.
- Lifting mechanism lever: A wooden mechanism that determines the coarseness or the fineness of the grains being ground.
- Bearing: The point at which the pin of the shaft rests giving free rotation.
These gharats are constructed from locally available material such as wood, stones, bamboo, and reeds. Apart from the technological aspect. These gharats also have an important sociological dimension. Socially, they have been the meeting points for villagers to get together. The widespread use of gharats and its popularity owe much to its simple and cost effective mechanism. It is important to note the advantages inherent in the indigenous watermill technology, in particular:
- Simple technology
- Locally designed and built
- Involving mainly local materials
- Low capital cost
- Almost no running costs
- Easily managed and maintained
- Better taste of the ground material
There are some names of technologies which are innovated from Uttarakhand:
- Agricultural implements made of metal alone
- Fuel sticks from pine needles and special stove
- Popularizing science: visualization of sound waves
- Insect killer and thief catcher
- Pedal operated tile making machine
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