Green Technology/Environment

Rainfall is minimum in Rajasthan state so drought is the main problem in this area. Traditional rainwater harvesting systems are adopted by the villager for minimizing the drought. Solar and biomass based energy also started by the government of India in Rajasthan.

Solar and Biomass-based Energy

As an alternative to fossil fuel based energy, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of the Government of India is aiming to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation. Specifically, the aim is to create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. The areas with annual direct solar radiation more than 1800 kWh/m2 are best suited for installation of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The arid parts of Rajasthan receive average maximum solar radiation of about 7.5KW h/m2 in summers and minimum of about 4.6KW h/m2 in winters. The results of a recent study36 indicate that the use of CSP technologies make financial sense for Rajasthan where the financial performance indicators for the CSP systems are attractive for most of the locations such as Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Barmer, Kota, Jodhpur, Jobner, Udaipur, and Jaipur. In addition, benefits of carbon credits under clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol further improve the financial feasibility of CSP systems.

Solar intensity in the western Rajasthan varies from 5.85 to 6.44kWh/m2/day. Sun is available for 345-355 days in a year because rains occur only for 10.4-20.5 days in a year. Therefore, there is high scope to harness solar energy for useful and profitable purposes.

In addition to solar power, about 1275 MW electrical power is possible to generate through biomass gasifier based power generation plant through surplus biomass available in Rajasthan. About 1656 tones of CO2 can be saved annually by installation of 1 MW biomass gasifier based power plant.

This calls for aggressive efforts to promote the development and utilization of solar energy for concentrating solar power generation, and biomass-based power generation in Rajasthan.

Traditional rainwater harvesting systems

Simple local technology of constructing embankments for water impounding and an ethic that exhorts “capture rain where it rains” have given rise to 1.5 million traditional village tanks, ponds and earthen embankments that harvest substantial rainwater in 6,60,000 villages in India. These systems serve a variety of functions and encourage growth of vegetation in commons and agro ecosystems. There are some names of traditional technologies adopted by villagers of Rajasthan:

  • Paar system ,
  • Talab /Bandhis,
  • Saza Kuva, J
  • Ohad,
  • Naada/ Bandha,
  • Rapat

Frequency of Drought

S.N. Recurrence Period(Year) Districts
1 Once in 3 years Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jodhpur and Sirohi
2 Once in 4 years Ajmer, Bikaner, Bundi, Dungarpur, Sriganganagar, Nagaur, Hanumangarh and Churu
3 Once in 5 years Alwar, Banswara, Bhilwara, Jaipur Jhunjhunu, Pali, Sawai Madhopur, Sikar, Dausa and Karauli.
4 Once in 6 years Chittorgarh, Jhalawar, Kota, Udaipur, Tonk, Rajsamand and Baran
5 Once in 8 years Bharatpur and Dholpur

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Traditional Rainwater Harvesting system